Welcome to the GSFC Exoplanet Modeling and Analysis Center (EMAC)

EMAC serves as a catalog, repository and integration platform for modeling and analysis resources focused on the study of exoplanet characteristics and environments. EMAC is a key project of the GSFC Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration (SEEC).

If you make use of tools linked or hosted on EMAC: please use the following statement in your publication acknowledgements: “This research made use of the NASA Exoplanet Modeling and Analysis Center (EMAC), which is funded by the NASA Planetary Science Division’s Internal Scientist Funding Model.”

Stay up to date with EMAC!
  • Subscribe to our monthly RSS messages on new updates and tools
  • Check out the (unofficial) Twitter account @ExoplanetModels, where new tools and features are highlighted

  • Help us improve EMAC!
  • Email us with general feedback at and tell us what you’d change or improve.
  • Click the icon in a resource box to provide suggestions for an individual tool or tools.

  • More Information on EMAC for first-time visitor...       
    • EMAC is intended as a clearinghouse for the whole research community interested in exoplanets, where any software or model developer can submit their tool/model or their model output as a contribution for others to use.
    • EMAC provides a searchable and sortable database for available source code and data output files - both resources hosted locally by EMAC as well as existing external tools and repositories hosted elsewhere.
    • The EMAC team also helps develop new web interfaces for tools that can be run “on-demand” or model grids that can be interpolated for more individualized results.
    • If you would like to submit a new tool/model to EMAC, please visit Submit a Resource page.
    • For help with tutorials for select resources/tools use the “Demo” button below and subscribe to our YouTube channel.
    • Watch this video for a walk-through of the whole EMAC site, including how to submit a new tool and how to access information for each resource.

    The P.I. is Avi Mandell, and the Deputy P.I. is Eric Lopez; more information on EMAC staffing and organization will be posted shortly.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#c53cbd66-66c4-414f-b300-725079f84600
    PEP: The Planetary Ephemeris Program

    Developed by many; original: Michael Ash; most recent and longest- time-involved: John Chandler

    This Fortran computer program models orbital motion in the solar system, including almost 100 individual asteroids as well as all of the planets and some moons, along with a detailed model of our moon, and a model of pulsar motions and of distant radio sources. It takes as input diverse astrometric data: radio, radar, laser, timing of signal arrivals, and VLBI. The program can solve for well over 100 parameters, including orbital and (for some bodies) rotational initial conditions, sky coordinates for radio sources, plasma densities, the second harmonic of the Sun's gravitational field, and those related to tests of fundamental physics.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=c53cbd66-66c4-414f-b300-725079f84600

    PEP: The Planetary Ephemeris Program

    Developed by many; original: Michael Ash; most recent and longest- time-involved: John Chandler

    This Fortran computer program models orbital motion in the solar system, including almost 100 individual asteroids as well as all of the planets and some moons, along with a detailed model of our moon, and a model of pulsar motions and of distant radio sources. It takes as input diverse astrometric data: radio, radar, laser, timing of signal arrivals, and VLBI. The program can solve for well over 100 parameters, including orbital and (for some bodies) rotational initial conditions, sky coordinates for radio sources, plasma densities, the second harmonic of the Sun's gravitational field, and those related to tests of fundamental physics.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#b1b38c3e-43c9-4b13-a35f-e2ba54db0acf
    VULCAN: Photochemical kinetics for planetary atmospheres

    Shang-Min (Shami) Tsai

    Photochemical kinetics for (exo-)planetary atmospheres, a fast and easy-to-use python code. The model has hierarchical C-H-N-O-S networks and treats thermochemistry, photochemistry, eddy diffusion, advection transport, condensation, and various boundary conditions.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=b1b38c3e-43c9-4b13-a35f-e2ba54db0acf

    VULCAN: Photochemical kinetics for planetary atmospheres

    Shang-Min (Shami) Tsai

    Photochemical kinetics for (exo-)planetary atmospheres, a fast and easy-to-use python code. The model has hierarchical C-H-N-O-S networks and treats thermochemistry, photochemistry, eddy diffusion, advection transport, condensation, and various boundary conditions.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#a5ae508b-b75d-4bd7-881f-e6f336633be2
    APOLLO: MCMC Exoplanet Atmosphere Retrieval Code

    Alex Howe & Arthur Adams

    APOLLO is an exoplanet atmosphere retrieval code designed for flexibility and comparison of models. The code computes 1-D forward models of exoplanet spectrum in transit or emission and fits them to observations using an MCMC method. APOLLO includes options for multiple radiative transfer algorithms, temperature-pressure profiles, and cloud parameterizations, allowing for comparison of models using different physics prescriptions. APOLLO can also generate synthetic spectra in the JWST spectroscopic modes, as well as compute photometric fluxes.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=a5ae508b-b75d-4bd7-881f-e6f336633be2

    APOLLO: MCMC Exoplanet Atmosphere Retrieval Code

    Alex Howe & Arthur Adams

    APOLLO is an exoplanet atmosphere retrieval code designed for flexibility and comparison of models. The code computes 1-D forward models of exoplanet spectrum in transit or emission and fits them to observations using an MCMC method. APOLLO includes options for multiple radiative transfer algorithms, temperature-pressure profiles, and cloud parameterizations, allowing for comparison of models using different physics prescriptions. APOLLO can also generate synthetic spectra in the JWST spectroscopic modes, as well as compute photometric fluxes.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#62d0814f-17bd-4103-80ad-f823a9fdf1d4
    ATES: ATmospheric EScape

    The ATES hydrodynamics code computes the temperature, density, velocity and ionization fraction profiles of highly irradiated planetary atmospheres, along with the current, steady-state mass loss rate. ATES solves the one-dimensional Euler, mass and energy conservation equations in radial coordinates through a finite-volume scheme. The hydrodynamics module is paired with a photoionization equilibrium solver that includes cooling via bremsstrahlung, recombination and collisional excitation/ionization for the case of an atmosphere of primordial composition (i.e., pure atomic hydrogen-helium), while also accounting for advection of the different ion species.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=62d0814f-17bd-4103-80ad-f823a9fdf1d4

    ATES: ATmospheric EScape

    The ATES hydrodynamics code computes the temperature, density, velocity and ionization fraction profiles of highly irradiated planetary atmospheres, along with the current, steady-state mass loss rate. ATES solves the one-dimensional Euler, mass and energy conservation equations in radial coordinates through a finite-volume scheme. The hydrodynamics module is paired with a photoionization equilibrium solver that includes cooling via bremsstrahlung, recombination and collisional excitation/ionization for the case of an atmosphere of primordial composition (i.e., pure atomic hydrogen-helium), while also accounting for advection of the different ion species.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#11e28f8f-6028-4260-86a9-0fe8159f9ddd
    ExoPlaSim: Extending the Planet Simulator for Exoplanets

    Paradise, A. et al.

    A modified version of the PlaSim 3D climate model, designed to simulate planets with Earth-like atmospheric compositions across a wide parameter space, including tidally-locked rotation, 0.1-10 bars surface pressure, and a range of stellar spectra. ExoPlaSim has a Python API for configuring and running models, as well as utilities for interacting with and analyzing the netCDF output files. ExoPlaSim is also pip-installable. As an intermediate-complexity model, ExoPlaSim trades some complexity for speed, and is able to run on a range of hardware including personal laptops and high-performance computing clusters, with typical performance of 1 year of climate at T21 resolution in 1-5 minutes.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=11e28f8f-6028-4260-86a9-0fe8159f9ddd

    ExoPlaSim: Extending the Planet Simulator for Exoplanets

    Paradise, A. et al.

    A modified version of the PlaSim 3D climate model, designed to simulate planets with Earth-like atmospheric compositions across a wide parameter space, including tidally-locked rotation, 0.1-10 bars surface pressure, and a range of stellar spectra. ExoPlaSim has a Python API for configuring and running models, as well as utilities for interacting with and analyzing the netCDF output files. ExoPlaSim is also pip-installable. As an intermediate-complexity model, ExoPlaSim trades some complexity for speed, and is able to run on a range of hardware including personal laptops and high-performance computing clusters, with typical performance of 1 year of climate at T21 resolution in 1-5 minutes.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#7ff64682-ae19-40fb-9368-451bcbb9d6a3
    Pyratbay: A Forward-modeling and retrieval code to model exoplanet atmospheres and spectra

    Cubillos, P. E. and Blecic, J.

    The Pyrat Bay framework is an open-source pack for exoplanet atmospheric modeling, spectral synthesis, and Bayesian retrieval. The modular design of the code allows the users to generate atmospheric 1D parametric models of the temperature, abundances (equilibrium or constant profiles), and altitude profiles in hydrostatic equilibrium; sample ExoMol and HITRAN line-by-line cross sections with custom resolving power and line-wing cutoff values; compute emission or transmission spectra considering cross sections from molecular line transitions, collision-induced absorption, Rayleigh scattering, gray clouds, and alkali resonance lines; and perform Markov chain Monte Carlo atmospheric retrievals.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=7ff64682-ae19-40fb-9368-451bcbb9d6a3

    Pyratbay: A Forward-modeling and retrieval code to model exoplanet atmospheres and spectra

    Cubillos, P. E. and Blecic, J.

    The Pyrat Bay framework is an open-source pack for exoplanet atmospheric modeling, spectral synthesis, and Bayesian retrieval. The modular design of the code allows the users to generate atmospheric 1D parametric models of the temperature, abundances (equilibrium or constant profiles), and altitude profiles in hydrostatic equilibrium; sample ExoMol and HITRAN line-by-line cross sections with custom resolving power and line-wing cutoff values; compute emission or transmission spectra considering cross sections from molecular line transitions, collision-induced absorption, Rayleigh scattering, gray clouds, and alkali resonance lines; and perform Markov chain Monte Carlo atmospheric retrievals.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#b58496a5-05ee-47d2-af17-2f6cbc45b9fc
    ARTES: Radiative transfer of polarized light in 3D exoplanet atmospheres

    Tomas Stolker

    ARTES is a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code for polarized scattered light simulations of exoplanet atmospheres. The code can be used for post-processing of a pre-calculated or parametrized atmosphere structure. Multiple scattering, absorption, and polarization are fully treated and the output includes an image, spectrum, or phase curve of reflected stellar light or thermal photons. Several tools are included for calculating opacities and scattering matrices of molecules and clouds but the user can also adopt their own opacities.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=b58496a5-05ee-47d2-af17-2f6cbc45b9fc

    ARTES: Radiative transfer of polarized light in 3D exoplanet atmospheres

    Tomas Stolker

    ARTES is a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code for polarized scattered light simulations of exoplanet atmospheres. The code can be used for post-processing of a pre-calculated or parametrized atmosphere structure. Multiple scattering, absorption, and polarization are fully treated and the output includes an image, spectrum, or phase curve of reflected stellar light or thermal photons. Several tools are included for calculating opacities and scattering matrices of molecules and clouds but the user can also adopt their own opacities.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#45fa4b5c-c189-437a-b5ef-b312e982a32e
    EXOCROSS: A general program for generating spectra from molecular line lists

    ExoCross is a Fortran code for generating spectra (emission, absorption) and thermodynamic properties (partition function, specific heat etc.) from molecular line lists including ExoMol and HITRAN. Input is taken in several formats, including ExoMol and HITRAN formats. ExoCross can work with several line profiles such as Doppler, Lorentzian and Voigt and support several broadening schemes. ExoCross supports calculations of lifetimes, cooling functions, specific heats and other properties. It is capable of simulating non-LTE spectra using a two-temperature approach as well as custom-built models.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=45fa4b5c-c189-437a-b5ef-b312e982a32e

    EXOCROSS: A general program for generating spectra from molecular line lists

    ExoCross is a Fortran code for generating spectra (emission, absorption) and thermodynamic properties (partition function, specific heat etc.) from molecular line lists including ExoMol and HITRAN. Input is taken in several formats, including ExoMol and HITRAN formats. ExoCross can work with several line profiles such as Doppler, Lorentzian and Voigt and support several broadening schemes. ExoCross supports calculations of lifetimes, cooling functions, specific heats and other properties. It is capable of simulating non-LTE spectra using a two-temperature approach as well as custom-built models.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov?related_resource=c9539dbb-fd84-4eeb-8606-3cb2440edffb
    ATMO: 1D-2D radiative/convective atmospheric code

    Tremblin P. et al. (see description)

    ATMO is a 1D-2D atmospheric code for the study of the atmosphere of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. The code has originally been developed at the University of Exeter (here) and is currently a collaboration between different groups across the globe. The main developers are: 1D and 2D newton solver: P. Tremblin Radiative transfer: D. Amundsen, P. Tremblin Opacities: D. Amundsen, M. Phillips, R. Ridgway, J. Goyal Equilibrium chemistry: P. Tremblin, B. Drummond, J. Goyal Condensation and rainouts: P. Tremblin, J. Goyal Out-of-equilibrium chemistry: O. Venot, E. Hebrard, B. Drummond Convection: P. Tremblin, M. Phillips Retrieval: D. Sing

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=c9539dbb-fd84-4eeb-8606-3cb2440edffb

    ATMO: 1D-2D radiative/convective atmospheric code

    Tremblin P. et al. (see description)

    ATMO is a 1D-2D atmospheric code for the study of the atmosphere of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. The code has originally been developed at the University of Exeter (here) and is currently a collaboration between different groups across the globe. The main developers are: 1D and 2D newton solver: P. Tremblin Radiative transfer: D. Amundsen, P. Tremblin Opacities: D. Amundsen, M. Phillips, R. Ridgway, J. Goyal Equilibrium chemistry: P. Tremblin, B. Drummond, J. Goyal Condensation and rainouts: P. Tremblin, J. Goyal Out-of-equilibrium chemistry: O. Venot, E. Hebrard, B. Drummond Convection: P. Tremblin, M. Phillips Retrieval: D. Sing

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#308c68d5-013b-401e-bac2-5b4035d1f76a
    THOR: Flexible Global Circulation Model to Explore Planetary Atmospheres

    Mendonça, J. et al. 2016; Deitrick, R., et al. 2020

    THOR is a GCM that solves the three-dimensional non-hydrostatic Euler equations on an icosahedral grid. THOR was designed to run on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs).

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=308c68d5-013b-401e-bac2-5b4035d1f76a

    THOR: Flexible Global Circulation Model to Explore Planetary Atmospheres

    Mendonça, J. et al. 2016; Deitrick, R., et al. 2020

    THOR is a GCM that solves the three-dimensional non-hydrostatic Euler equations on an icosahedral grid. THOR was designed to run on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs).

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#b335069c-b8fa-4bb2-8d87-d6e7e8c8c0f1
    Aeolus: Python Library for Object-Oriented Analysis of Atmospheric Model Output

    Sergeev, D. E.

    Aeolus is a library for analysis and plotting of a climate model output, primarily of the UK Met Office Unified Model when it is used to simulate various planetary atmospheres. Aeolus is built on top of iris and has various functions tailored to exoplanet research, e.g. in the context of tidally-locked exoplanets.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=b335069c-b8fa-4bb2-8d87-d6e7e8c8c0f1

    Aeolus: Python Library for Object-Oriented Analysis of Atmospheric Model Output

    Sergeev, D. E.

    Aeolus is a library for analysis and plotting of a climate model output, primarily of the UK Met Office Unified Model when it is used to simulate various planetary atmospheres. Aeolus is built on top of iris and has various functions tailored to exoplanet research, e.g. in the context of tidally-locked exoplanets.

    About Demo
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#a4778a22-5b89-4903-aa57-3f8d415b31df
    CHIMERA: Exoplanet Emission/Transmission Atmospheric Retrieval Tool

    M. Line et al. (J. Lustig-Yaeger, N. Batalha, M. Marley, X. Zhang, A. Wolf)

    Flexible atmospheric retrieval tool for exoplanet atmospheres. Can be used for both transmission and emission geometries with options for both the "free" and "chemically consistent" abundance retrievals. Uses correlated-K opacities (R=100) with the random-overlap resort-rebin procedure (Amundsen et al. 2017). Includes full multiple scattering in emission (both planetary and stellar reflected light) using a two stream approximation variant (Toon et al. 1989). Various cloud parameterizations ranging from "grey+power-law" to the "Ackerman & Marley 2001" eddy-sed routine in both emission and transmission. Includes multiple Bayesian samplers, including PyMultiNest (recommended) and Dynesty.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=a4778a22-5b89-4903-aa57-3f8d415b31df

    CHIMERA: Exoplanet Emission/Transmission Atmospheric Retrieval Tool

    M. Line et al. (J. Lustig-Yaeger, N. Batalha, M. Marley, X. Zhang, A. Wolf)

    Flexible atmospheric retrieval tool for exoplanet atmospheres. Can be used for both transmission and emission geometries with options for both the "free" and "chemically consistent" abundance retrievals. Uses correlated-K opacities (R=100) with the random-overlap resort-rebin procedure (Amundsen et al. 2017). Includes full multiple scattering in emission (both planetary and stellar reflected light) using a two stream approximation variant (Toon et al. 1989). Various cloud parameterizations ranging from "grey+power-law" to the "Ackerman & Marley 2001" eddy-sed routine in both emission and transmission. Includes multiple Bayesian samplers, including PyMultiNest (recommended) and Dynesty.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#fd23da77-9a96-4854-96bf-03b116c3a556
    AstroBEAR: An Adaptive Mesh Refinement Code for Computational Astrophysics

    Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, Adam Frank, Baowei Liu, Shule Li, Erica Fogerty, Andrew Cunningham, Sorin Mitran, Zhuo Chen, Kris Yirak, Eddie Hansen, Martin Huarte-Espinosa, Luke Chamandy, Alex Debrecht, Yangyuxin Zou, Atma Anand

    AstroBEAR is a parallelized hydrodynamic/MHD simulation code suitable for a variety of astrophysical problems. Derived from the BearCLAW package written by Sorin Mitran, AstroBEAR is designed for 2D and 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), multi-physics simulations. Users write their own project modules by specifying initial conditions and continual processes (such as an inflow condition). In addition, AstroBEAR comes with a number of pre-built physical phenomena such as clumps and winds that can be loaded into a user module.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=fd23da77-9a96-4854-96bf-03b116c3a556

    AstroBEAR: An Adaptive Mesh Refinement Code for Computational Astrophysics

    Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, Adam Frank, Baowei Liu, Shule Li, Erica Fogerty, Andrew Cunningham, Sorin Mitran, Zhuo Chen, Kris Yirak, Eddie Hansen, Martin Huarte-Espinosa, Luke Chamandy, Alex Debrecht, Yangyuxin Zou, Atma Anand

    AstroBEAR is a parallelized hydrodynamic/MHD simulation code suitable for a variety of astrophysical problems. Derived from the BearCLAW package written by Sorin Mitran, AstroBEAR is designed for 2D and 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), multi-physics simulations. Users write their own project modules by specifying initial conditions and continual processes (such as an inflow condition). In addition, AstroBEAR comes with a number of pre-built physical phenomena such as clumps and winds that can be loaded into a user module.

    About Demo
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov?related_resource=f56dff02-56b6-4374-84d6-cb59abf48602
    SVO Theoretical Spectra Server: A Server of Data for over 60 Collections of Theoretical Spectra and Observational Templates

    Carlos Rodrigo, Spanish Virtual Observatory, CAB, CSIC-INTA

    The SVO Theory Server provides data for more than 60 collections of theoretical spectra and observational templates. Using this web page you can search for spectra in each collection in terms of the corresponding grid parameter ranges, visualize the spectra and/or download them in ascii or VOTable format. You will be able to compare spectra from different collections too. Synthetic Photometry is also available for these spectra and all the filters in the SVO Filter Profile Service.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=f56dff02-56b6-4374-84d6-cb59abf48602

    SVO Theoretical Spectra Server: A Server of Data for over 60 Collections of Theoretical Spectra and Observational Templates

    Carlos Rodrigo, Spanish Virtual Observatory, CAB, CSIC-INTA

    The SVO Theory Server provides data for more than 60 collections of theoretical spectra and observational templates. Using this web page you can search for spectra in each collection in terms of the corresponding grid parameter ranges, visualize the spectra and/or download them in ascii or VOTable format. You will be able to compare spectra from different collections too. Synthetic Photometry is also available for these spectra and all the filters in the SVO Filter Profile Service.

    Demo
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#a87ea5c0-1647-4936-85ee-3f629fe3b6a5
    ExoCAM: Exoplanet Extension for the CAM GCM

    Wolf, E.T.

    ExoCAM is a model extension to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM) 3-D general circulation and climate system model, which facilitates simulations of exoplanetary atmospheres. This software contains system configuration files, source code, initial condition files, namelists, and some basic analysis scripts. Familiarity with CESM is prerequisite. CESM must be downloaded separately. The radiative transfer component of ExoCAM is stored in a separate GitHub link , and can be run independently or coupled with ExoCAM/CESM.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=a87ea5c0-1647-4936-85ee-3f629fe3b6a5

    ExoCAM: Exoplanet Extension for the CAM GCM

    Wolf, E.T.

    ExoCAM is a model extension to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM) 3-D general circulation and climate system model, which facilitates simulations of exoplanetary atmospheres. This software contains system configuration files, source code, initial condition files, namelists, and some basic analysis scripts. Familiarity with CESM is prerequisite. CESM must be downloaded separately. The radiative transfer component of ExoCAM is stored in a separate GitHub link , and can be run independently or coupled with ExoCAM/CESM.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#23d399b2-7f15-43dc-a597-6b22db3f436e
    JET: JWST Exoplanet Targeting Program

    Charles Fortenbach, Courtney Dressing, et al.

    JWST will devote significant observing time to the study of exoplanets. It will not be serviceable as was the Hubble, and therefore the spacecraft/instruments will have a relatively limited life. It is important to get as much science as possible out of this limited observing time. We provide a computer tool, JET, to optimize lists of exoplanet targets for atmospheric characterization. JET takes catalogs of planet detections; categorizes the targets by radius and equilibrium temp.; estimates planet masses; generates model spectra and simulated instrument spectra; performs a statistical analysis to confirm an atmospheric detection; and finally, ranks the targets by observation time required.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=23d399b2-7f15-43dc-a597-6b22db3f436e

    JET: JWST Exoplanet Targeting Program

    Charles Fortenbach, Courtney Dressing, et al.

    JWST will devote significant observing time to the study of exoplanets. It will not be serviceable as was the Hubble, and therefore the spacecraft/instruments will have a relatively limited life. It is important to get as much science as possible out of this limited observing time. We provide a computer tool, JET, to optimize lists of exoplanet targets for atmospheric characterization. JET takes catalogs of planet detections; categorizes the targets by radius and equilibrium temp.; estimates planet masses; generates model spectra and simulated instrument spectra; performs a statistical analysis to confirm an atmospheric detection; and finally, ranks the targets by observation time required.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#0d601575-94ac-4be9-8b70-c0f43cc27ae8
    The Opacity Wizard: A Tool for Visualizations of Opacity and Abundance Data for Exoplanet and Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Caroline Morley

    This tool was developed to allow for easy and fast visualizations of opacity and abundance data for exoplanet and brown dwarf atmospheres. In particular, it was designed to be used by observers studying these substellar objects as an easy way of exploring which molecules are most important for a given planet and predict where the absorption features of those molecules will be. It is simple to use for non-python experts and requires only Python/NumPy/Matplotlib/Jupyter.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=0d601575-94ac-4be9-8b70-c0f43cc27ae8

    The Opacity Wizard: A Tool for Visualizations of Opacity and Abundance Data for Exoplanet and Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Caroline Morley

    This tool was developed to allow for easy and fast visualizations of opacity and abundance data for exoplanet and brown dwarf atmospheres. In particular, it was designed to be used by observers studying these substellar objects as an easy way of exploring which molecules are most important for a given planet and predict where the absorption features of those molecules will be. It is simple to use for non-python experts and requires only Python/NumPy/Matplotlib/Jupyter.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov?related_resource=e6b635b8-53c3-43ac-9ff4-63c47b8fe19c
    REPAST: Rocky ExoPlanet Albedo Spectra Tool

    Adam J. R. W. Smith, Avi Mandell, Geronimo Villanueva

    Here we present a database of albedo spectra for rocky, Earth-sized and Earth-mass exoplanets, as computed with the NASA Planetary Spectrum Generator tool (psg.gsfc.nasa.gov; Villanueva et al. 2018). The database is presented in two Python .pickle files containing pandas DataFrame objects. The DataFrame index values are wavelength, in micrometers; while the column name values contain the encoded parameters represented in the model object's albedo spectra contained with in that column. Each cell then gives the calculated geometric albedo value for the column-named model planet at the row-indicated wavelength.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=e6b635b8-53c3-43ac-9ff4-63c47b8fe19c

    REPAST: Rocky ExoPlanet Albedo Spectra Tool

    Adam J. R. W. Smith, Avi Mandell, Geronimo Villanueva

    Here we present a database of albedo spectra for rocky, Earth-sized and Earth-mass exoplanets, as computed with the NASA Planetary Spectrum Generator tool (psg.gsfc.nasa.gov; Villanueva et al. 2018). The database is presented in two Python .pickle files containing pandas DataFrame objects. The DataFrame index values are wavelength, in micrometers; while the column name values contain the encoded parameters represented in the model object's albedo spectra contained with in that column. Each cell then gives the calculated geometric albedo value for the column-named model planet at the row-indicated wavelength.

    About Demo
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#058599b8-7ba0-4e39-a1aa-65d80e9f84cf
    HELIOS: 1D radiative-convective model for exoplanetary atmospheres

    Malik et al.

    HELIOS is an open-source radiative transfer code designed to study exoplanetary atmospheres, from rocky terrestrial planets to ultra-hot Jupiters. For given opacities and planetary parameters, HELIOS finds the atmospheric temperature profile in radiative-convective equilibrium and the synthetic planetary emission spectrum. HELIOS is written in Python, with the core computations parallelized to run on a GPU. HELIOS is part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=058599b8-7ba0-4e39-a1aa-65d80e9f84cf

    HELIOS: 1D radiative-convective model for exoplanetary atmospheres

    Malik et al.

    HELIOS is an open-source radiative transfer code designed to study exoplanetary atmospheres, from rocky terrestrial planets to ultra-hot Jupiters. For given opacities and planetary parameters, HELIOS finds the atmospheric temperature profile in radiative-convective equilibrium and the synthetic planetary emission spectrum. HELIOS is written in Python, with the core computations parallelized to run on a GPU. HELIOS is part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#0a1ca53d-2b61-46d1-81a1-4bbb4fc07fb8
    PLATON: PLanetary Atmospheric Tool for Observer Noobs

    Michael Zhang, Yayaati Chachan, Eliza Kempton, Heather Knutson

    PLATON is a Python package that can calculate transmission and emission spectra for exoplanets, as well as retrieve atmospheric characteristics based on observed spectra. PLATON is easy to install and use, with common use cases taking no more than a few lines of code. It is also fast, with the forward model taking less than 100 ms and a typical retrieval finishing in ~10 min on an ordinary desktop. PLATON supports the most common atmospheric parameters, such as temperature, metallicity, C/O ratio, cloud-top pressure, and scattering slope. It also has less commonly included features, such as a Mie scattering cloud model and unocculted starspot corrections.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=0a1ca53d-2b61-46d1-81a1-4bbb4fc07fb8

    PLATON: PLanetary Atmospheric Tool for Observer Noobs

    Michael Zhang, Yayaati Chachan, Eliza Kempton, Heather Knutson

    PLATON is a Python package that can calculate transmission and emission spectra for exoplanets, as well as retrieve atmospheric characteristics based on observed spectra. PLATON is easy to install and use, with common use cases taking no more than a few lines of code. It is also fast, with the forward model taking less than 100 ms and a typical retrieval finishing in ~10 min on an ordinary desktop. PLATON supports the most common atmospheric parameters, such as temperature, metallicity, C/O ratio, cloud-top pressure, and scattering slope. It also has less commonly included features, such as a Mie scattering cloud model and unocculted starspot corrections.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#254de159-1880-4f91-9432-34fe093db452
    Atmos: Packaged Photochemical and Climate Model

    Claire et al.

    Atmos is a packaged photochemical model and climate model used to understand the vertical structure of various terrestrial atmospheres. Its photochemical model calculates the profiles of various chemicals in the atmosphere, including both gaseous and aerosol phases. Its climate model calculates the temperature profile of the atmosphere. While individually these models may be run for useful information, when coupled they offer a detailed analysis of atmospheric steady-state structures.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=254de159-1880-4f91-9432-34fe093db452

    Atmos: Packaged Photochemical and Climate Model

    Claire et al.

    Atmos is a packaged photochemical model and climate model used to understand the vertical structure of various terrestrial atmospheres. Its photochemical model calculates the profiles of various chemicals in the atmosphere, including both gaseous and aerosol phases. Its climate model calculates the temperature profile of the atmosphere. While individually these models may be run for useful information, when coupled they offer a detailed analysis of atmospheric steady-state structures.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#4ad1c9f8-8f65-4e35-9da7-a312fccc8866
    CGP: Reflection Spectra Repository for Cool Giant Planets 2

    Ryan J. MacDonald; Mark S. Marley; Jonathan J. Fortney; Nikole K. Lewis

    We present an extensive parameter space survey of the prominence of H2O in reflection spectra of cool giant planets. We explore the influence of a wide range of effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, and sedimentation efficiencies, providing a grid of >50,000 models for the community. Our models range from Teff = 150 → 400 K, log(g) = 2.0–4.0 (cgs), fsed = 1–10, and log(m) = 0.0–2.0 ́ solar. We discretize this parameter space into intervals of ΔTeff = 10 K, Δlog(g) = 0.1 dex, Δfsed = 1, and Δlog(m) = 0.5 dex, generating reflection spectra both with and without H2O opacity.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=4ad1c9f8-8f65-4e35-9da7-a312fccc8866

    CGP: Reflection Spectra Repository for Cool Giant Planets 2

    Ryan J. MacDonald; Mark S. Marley; Jonathan J. Fortney; Nikole K. Lewis

    We present an extensive parameter space survey of the prominence of H2O in reflection spectra of cool giant planets. We explore the influence of a wide range of effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, and sedimentation efficiencies, providing a grid of >50,000 models for the community. Our models range from Teff = 150 → 400 K, log(g) = 2.0–4.0 (cgs), fsed = 1–10, and log(m) = 0.0–2.0 ́ solar. We discretize this parameter space into intervals of ΔTeff = 10 K, Δlog(g) = 0.1 dex, Δfsed = 1, and Δlog(m) = 0.5 dex, generating reflection spectra both with and without H2O opacity.

    About Demo
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov?related_resource=4d826f7c-9ec5-4efe-9121-6b1a3880a77a
    PyATMOS NExSci Repository: A Dataset of ~125,000 Simulated 1-D Exoplanet Atmospheres

    William Fawcett et al.

    The PyATMOS NExSci dataset comprises ~125,000 simulated 1-D exoplanet atmospheres. All of these exoplanets are based around an Earth-like planet that orbits a star similar to the Sun, but with different gas mixtures in their atmospheres. The atmospheres were generated using the PyATMOS code. The parameter space was created by incrementally varying the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapour, methane, hydrogen, and nitrogen; and for each point in the parameter space an atmosphere was simulated. Other gases with negligible concentrations, such as ozone, were not varied. The planet's composition, orbital parameters and stellar parameters were also not varied.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=4d826f7c-9ec5-4efe-9121-6b1a3880a77a

    PyATMOS NExSci Repository: A Dataset of ~125,000 Simulated 1-D Exoplanet Atmospheres

    William Fawcett et al.

    The PyATMOS NExSci dataset comprises ~125,000 simulated 1-D exoplanet atmospheres. All of these exoplanets are based around an Earth-like planet that orbits a star similar to the Sun, but with different gas mixtures in their atmospheres. The atmospheres were generated using the PyATMOS code. The parameter space was created by incrementally varying the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapour, methane, hydrogen, and nitrogen; and for each point in the parameter space an atmosphere was simulated. Other gases with negligible concentrations, such as ozone, were not varied. The planet's composition, orbital parameters and stellar parameters were also not varied.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#517bf2ca-4143-4c3e-9045-5c937ca769e1
    species: Toolkit for atmospheric characterization of directly imaged exoplanets

    Tomas Stolker

    The species toolkit provides a coherent framework for spectral and photometric analysis of directly imaged exoplanets which builds on publicly-available data and models from various resources. There are tools available for both grid retrievals and free retrievals with Bayesian inference, color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, empirical spectral analysis, spectral and photometric calibration, and synthetic photometry.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=517bf2ca-4143-4c3e-9045-5c937ca769e1

    species: Toolkit for atmospheric characterization of directly imaged exoplanets

    Tomas Stolker

    The species toolkit provides a coherent framework for spectral and photometric analysis of directly imaged exoplanets which builds on publicly-available data and models from various resources. There are tools available for both grid retrievals and free retrievals with Bayesian inference, color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, empirical spectral analysis, spectral and photometric calibration, and synthetic photometry.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#6591c1f5-d392-4550-80a3-5d8eda34c1e6
    TROPF: Tidal Response Of Planetary Fluids

    Robert Tyler

    The TROPF (Tidal Response Of Planetary Fluids) software package is a MATLAB/Octave package that enables efficient terrestrial fluid tidal studies across a wide range of parameter space. TROPF includes several different solutions to the governing equations in classical tidal theory, and can calculate millions of such solutions on several-minute-long timescales. A comprehensive manual is included in the distribution directory. To help improve the development of TROPF, or become involved in future releases, please send feedback to rtyler@umbc.edu.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=6591c1f5-d392-4550-80a3-5d8eda34c1e6

    TROPF: Tidal Response Of Planetary Fluids

    Robert Tyler

    The TROPF (Tidal Response Of Planetary Fluids) software package is a MATLAB/Octave package that enables efficient terrestrial fluid tidal studies across a wide range of parameter space. TROPF includes several different solutions to the governing equations in classical tidal theory, and can calculate millions of such solutions on several-minute-long timescales. A comprehensive manual is included in the distribution directory. To help improve the development of TROPF, or become involved in future releases, please send feedback to rtyler@umbc.edu.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov?related_resource=6fdbe6b7-ea6c-4ad3-8c16-8cf4a5fa97ca
    ATMO Generic Grid @ ExoCTK: A Generic Model Grid of Planetary Transmission Spectra

    Jayesh Goyal et al.

    A generic model grid of planetary transmission spectra, scalable to a wide range of H2/He dominated atmospheres. The grid is computed using the 1D/2D atmosphere model ATMO for two different chemical scenarios, first considering local condensation only, secondly considering global condensation and removal of species from the atmospheric column (rainout). Using the model grid as a framework, we allow you to rescale your models with custom temperature, gravity, and radius values. The web interface is hosted and maintained by the STScI Exoplanet Characterization ToolKit.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=6fdbe6b7-ea6c-4ad3-8c16-8cf4a5fa97ca

    ATMO Generic Grid @ ExoCTK: A Generic Model Grid of Planetary Transmission Spectra

    Jayesh Goyal et al.

    A generic model grid of planetary transmission spectra, scalable to a wide range of H2/He dominated atmospheres. The grid is computed using the 1D/2D atmosphere model ATMO for two different chemical scenarios, first considering local condensation only, secondly considering global condensation and removal of species from the atmospheric column (rainout). Using the model grid as a framework, we allow you to rescale your models with custom temperature, gravity, and radius values. The web interface is hosted and maintained by the STScI Exoplanet Characterization ToolKit.

    About Demo
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#848882ca-0360-49cc-bea1-00f462b6259b
    VPLanet: Planetary System Evolution Simulator

    Rory Barnes et al.

    VPLanet simulates numerous aspects of planetary system evolution with a single executable: 1) thermal and magnetic evolution of terrestrial planets, 2) magma oceans, 3) radiogenic heating of interiors, 4) tidal effects, 5) rotational axis evolution, 6) stellar evolution, including pre-MS, XUV, and spin-down, 7) climate via a 1-D EBM, 8) atmospheric escape, including water photolysis and H escape, 9) approximate orbital evolution, 10) exact orbital evolution, 11) circumbinary planet orbits, and 12) galactic perturbations on planetary systems. The code is validated by reproducing selected Solar System, exoplanet, and binary star properties. Documentation and numerous examples are provided.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=848882ca-0360-49cc-bea1-00f462b6259b

    VPLanet: Planetary System Evolution Simulator

    Rory Barnes et al.

    VPLanet simulates numerous aspects of planetary system evolution with a single executable: 1) thermal and magnetic evolution of terrestrial planets, 2) magma oceans, 3) radiogenic heating of interiors, 4) tidal effects, 5) rotational axis evolution, 6) stellar evolution, including pre-MS, XUV, and spin-down, 7) climate via a 1-D EBM, 8) atmospheric escape, including water photolysis and H escape, 9) approximate orbital evolution, 10) exact orbital evolution, 11) circumbinary planet orbits, and 12) galactic perturbations on planetary systems. The code is validated by reproducing selected Solar System, exoplanet, and binary star properties. Documentation and numerous examples are provided.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov?related_resource=8ef3e9d0-05a4-4e6a-ba0b-c0139b186676
    ATMO Exoplanet-Specific Grid: A Grid of Forward Model Transmission Spectra

    Jayesh Goyal et al.

    A grid of forward model transmission spectra, adopting an isothermal temperature-pressure profile, alongside corresponding equilibrium chemical abundances for 117 observationally significant hot exoplanets (equilibrium temperatures of 547–2710 K). This model grid has been developed using a 1D radiative–convective–chemical equilibrium model termed ATMO, with up-to-date high-temperature opacities.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=8ef3e9d0-05a4-4e6a-ba0b-c0139b186676

    ATMO Exoplanet-Specific Grid: A Grid of Forward Model Transmission Spectra

    Jayesh Goyal et al.

    A grid of forward model transmission spectra, adopting an isothermal temperature-pressure profile, alongside corresponding equilibrium chemical abundances for 117 observationally significant hot exoplanets (equilibrium temperatures of 547–2710 K). This model grid has been developed using a 1D radiative–convective–chemical equilibrium model termed ATMO, with up-to-date high-temperature opacities.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#8fd58a04-ef00-48d1-8e37-548771472b21
    PICASO: Open-Source RT Model for Computing Reflected Exoplanet Light at any Phase Geometry

    Natasha Batalha, Mark Marley, Nikole Lewis, Jonathon Fortney

    IN PROGRESS — The Planetary Intensity Code for Atmospheric Scattering Observations (PICASO) is an open-source radiative transfer model for computing the reflected light of exoplanets at any phase geometry. This code, written in Python, has heritage from a decades old, well-known Fortran model used for several studies of planetary objects within the Solar System and beyond. We have adopted it to include several methodologies for computing both direct and diffuse scattering phase functions, and have added several updates including the ability to compute Raman scattering spectral features.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=8fd58a04-ef00-48d1-8e37-548771472b21

    PICASO: Open-Source RT Model for Computing Reflected Exoplanet Light at any Phase Geometry

    Natasha Batalha, Mark Marley, Nikole Lewis, Jonathon Fortney

    IN PROGRESS — The Planetary Intensity Code for Atmospheric Scattering Observations (PICASO) is an open-source radiative transfer model for computing the reflected light of exoplanets at any phase geometry. This code, written in Python, has heritage from a decades old, well-known Fortran model used for several studies of planetary objects within the Solar System and beyond. We have adopted it to include several methodologies for computing both direct and diffuse scattering phase functions, and have added several updates including the ability to compute Raman scattering spectral features.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov?related_resource=a6b3d1ae-9c2c-4e84-9f82-8a30ffcc6d9b
    PyATMOS: Software Package to Configure and Run the Virtual Planetary Laboratories' ATMOS Software

    William Fawcett et al.

    PyATMOS is a software package able to configure and run the Virtual Planetary Laboratories' ATMOS software, which is an exoplanetary atmosphere simulator. PyATMOS is written in Python, allowing easy user configuration and running, and is optionally configurable with Docker and therefore can be used on any machine with Docker and Python installed, regardless of the operating system. PyATMOS can be used in "single-use" mode, simulating a single exoplanet atmosphere with a given set of atmospheric parameters, but also in a parallel mode, whereby a grid of possible parameters for many atmospheres is supplied. PyATMOS will explore this parameter space and produce a database of the results.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=a6b3d1ae-9c2c-4e84-9f82-8a30ffcc6d9b

    PyATMOS: Software Package to Configure and Run the Virtual Planetary Laboratories' ATMOS Software

    William Fawcett et al.

    PyATMOS is a software package able to configure and run the Virtual Planetary Laboratories' ATMOS software, which is an exoplanetary atmosphere simulator. PyATMOS is written in Python, allowing easy user configuration and running, and is optionally configurable with Docker and therefore can be used on any machine with Docker and Python installed, regardless of the operating system. PyATMOS can be used in "single-use" mode, simulating a single exoplanet atmosphere with a given set of atmospheric parameters, but also in a parallel mode, whereby a grid of possible parameters for many atmospheres is supplied. PyATMOS will explore this parameter space and produce a database of the results.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#aad6314c-60f2-43be-b1cf-b4951fd9d3a9
    petitRADTRANS: Tool for Calculating Transmission and Emission Spectra of Exoplanets with Clear and Cloudy Atm.

    Paul Mollière

    PetitRADTRANS (pRT) is a Python package for calculating transmission and emission spectra of exoplanets, at low (𝜆/Δ𝜆=1000) and high (𝜆/Δ𝜆=106) resolution, for clear and cloudy atmospheres. pRT offers a large variety of atomic and molecular gas opacities, cloud cross-sections from optical constants, or parametrized cloud models using either opacity power laws or grey cloud decks. The code also calculation of emission and transmission contribution functions, and contains a PHOENIX/ATLAS9 spectral library for host stars to calculate planet-to-star contrasts. Implemented examples for MCMC retrievals with pRT can be found on the code website.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=aad6314c-60f2-43be-b1cf-b4951fd9d3a9

    petitRADTRANS: Tool for Calculating Transmission and Emission Spectra of Exoplanets with Clear and Cloudy Atm.

    Paul Mollière

    PetitRADTRANS (pRT) is a Python package for calculating transmission and emission spectra of exoplanets, at low (𝜆/Δ𝜆=1000) and high (𝜆/Δ𝜆=106) resolution, for clear and cloudy atmospheres. pRT offers a large variety of atomic and molecular gas opacities, cloud cross-sections from optical constants, or parametrized cloud models using either opacity power laws or grey cloud decks. The code also calculation of emission and transmission contribution functions, and contains a PHOENIX/ATLAS9 spectral library for host stars to calculate planet-to-star contrasts. Implemented examples for MCMC retrievals with pRT can be found on the code website.

    About
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#ae3cf01e-f27d-4e19-a59c-95fa8da44d8d
    Exoplanet Boundaries Calculator: An Online Condensations Boundary Calculator 1.1

    Kopparapu et al.

    The Exoplanet Boundaries Calculator (EBC) is an online calculator that provides condensation boundaries (in stellar fluxes) for ZnS, H2O, CO2 and CH4 for the following planetary radii that represent transition to different planet regimes: 0.5, 1, 1.75, 3.5, 6, and 14.3 RE. The purpose is to classify planets into different categories based on a species condensing in a planet's atmosphere. These boundaries are applicable only for G-dwarf stars.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=ae3cf01e-f27d-4e19-a59c-95fa8da44d8d

    Exoplanet Boundaries Calculator: An Online Condensations Boundary Calculator 1.1

    Kopparapu et al.

    The Exoplanet Boundaries Calculator (EBC) is an online calculator that provides condensation boundaries (in stellar fluxes) for ZnS, H2O, CO2 and CH4 for the following planetary radii that represent transition to different planet regimes: 0.5, 1, 1.75, 3.5, 6, and 14.3 RE. The purpose is to classify planets into different categories based on a species condensing in a planet's atmosphere. These boundaries are applicable only for G-dwarf stars.

    Demo
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#d04ccd95-80f9-4e14-985b-e00436644e19
    LAPS: The Live Atmosphere-of-Planets Simulator

    Martin Turbet (LMD), Cédric Schott (ESEP) and the LMD team

    LAPS was developed to easily simulate the climate of planets similar to Earth (i.e., terrestrial but not giant planets). This model is based on the LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) Global Climate Model (GCM), a complex 3-D numerical model of climate solving equations of thermodynamics, radiative transfer and hydrodynamics. This complex 3-D model has been simplified to a 1-D code (Turbet et al. 2016, 2017), which is therefore much faster to run and can now be used online in an interactive fashion.

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=d04ccd95-80f9-4e14-985b-e00436644e19

    LAPS: The Live Atmosphere-of-Planets Simulator

    Martin Turbet (LMD), Cédric Schott (ESEP) and the LMD team

    LAPS was developed to easily simulate the climate of planets similar to Earth (i.e., terrestrial but not giant planets). This model is based on the LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) Global Climate Model (GCM), a complex 3-D numerical model of climate solving equations of thermodynamics, radiative transfer and hydrodynamics. This complex 3-D model has been simplified to a 1-D code (Turbet et al. 2016, 2017), which is therefore much faster to run and can now be used online in an interactive fashion.

    About Demo
    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov?related_resource=f476b21b-8365-49f3-97ab-0f19785affef
    Planetary Spectrum Generator: An Online Tool for Synthesizing Planetary Spectra

    Villanueva et al.

    The Planetary Spectrum Generator (PSG) is an online tool for synthesizing planetary spectra (atmospheres and surfaces) for a broad range of wavelengths (100 nm to 100 mm, UV/Vis/near-IR/IR/far-IR/THz/sub-mm/Radio) from any observatory (e.g., JWST, ALMA, Keck, SOFIA).

    copy_img
    https://emac.gsfc.nasa.gov#?related_resource=f476b21b-8365-49f3-97ab-0f19785affef

    Planetary Spectrum Generator: An Online Tool for Synthesizing Planetary Spectra

    Villanueva et al.

    The Planetary Spectrum Generator (PSG) is an online tool for synthesizing planetary spectra (atmospheres and surfaces) for a broad range of wavelengths (100 nm to 100 mm, UV/Vis/near-IR/IR/far-IR/THz/sub-mm/Radio) from any observatory (e.g., JWST, ALMA, Keck, SOFIA).

    About Demo